Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is cancer of the prostate. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancerous tumor worldwide and is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related mortality among men. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system that surrounds the urethra just below the bladder. It is located in the hypogastric region of the abdomen. To give an idea of where it is located, the bladder is superior to the prostate gland as shown in the image The rectum is posterior in perspective to the prostate gland and the ischial tuberosity of the pelvic bone is inferior.

Only those who have male reproductive organs are able to get prostate cancer. Most prostate cancers are slow growing. Cancerous cells may spread to other areas of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. It may initially cause no symptoms. In later stages, symptoms include pain or difficulty urinating, blood in the urine,


or pain in the pelvis or back. Benign prostatic hyperplasia may produce similar symptoms. Other late symptoms include fatigue, due to low levels of red blood cells. Factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer include older age, family history and race. About 99% of cases occur after age 50. A first-degree relative with the disease increases the risk two- to three-fold. Other factors include a diet high in processed meat and red meat, while the risk from a high intake of milk products is inconclusive. An association with gonorrhea has been found, although no reason for this relationship has been identified. An increased risk is associated with the BRCA mutations. Diagnosis is by biopsy. Medical imaging may be done to assess whether metastasis is present.